|"Thoughts on culture and Europe" series:|
The official website of the Greek Presidency of the European Union is organizing a series of interviews titled "Thoughts on culture and Europe".This aims to be a forum where artists and writers on culture can speak on the relationship between culture and politics. Jose Saramago, Ilya Kabakov, Pawel Pawlikowski, and Theodoros Angelopoulos and others have sent their views.View original article in the Euopean Union website
Exclusive interview with Majid Majidi
1. What is the role of politics in your work? Is art an effective, or even subversive, form for addressing political questions?
I consider that subjects directly related to politics tend to be covered in a journalistic form, eager for sensationalism and in any case with a short-term vision. I always tried to avoid them. This does not mean that I close my eyes on political realities of the world in a desire to be unaware of them. On the contrary I am quite conscious of them but I try rather by my cinema to give them a human face.
2. Iranian films seem to have rediscovered a humanism that Western art has forgotten. Can the humanistic integrity of your work be attributed to the influence of religion?
Iran is an old country with a significant cultural history. Our literature is very rich with poets such as Hafiz, Saadi, Rumi. In their writings, these poets have always given a great importance to the human being. Contemporary cultural subjects are stemming from this tradition as well as the rituals associated with them. The manner these subjects are dealt with is influenced by the particular beliefs of the Iranians that existed and continue to exist nowadays. These days, the world, and in particular the Western world, is in a period of disruption with the past. Human being and traditional moral values, dear to people, seem to have been lost in the process.
3. Contrary to the Western perception of Islamic societies, the women in your films are very dynamic characters. Why are Muslim women portrayed as victims in Western films?
It seems that the Western governments thrives to impose the stereotype of a Moslem world that is backward and narrow minded. This is often justified by political considerations. We know that more than 65% of the world energetic resources are in grounds of Moslem countries. The industrialised countries, mostly Western, have always during modern history thrived to increase their control over these areas. Precisely, in this moment the United States attack on Iraq in order to control its politic and its oil, illustrates very well the persistence of these intentions of control usually disguised into ideals of freedom and democracy. Fortunately few believes that is the case. It is clear that the Western governments, and particularly the United States, always tried to portray the Moslems by exploiting specific cases. For example, the Taliban and other extremists regime whose creation and existence were encouraged by the U.S. were used to present to the world a picture of an Islam based on terror and intolerance particularly toward women. For the Talibans, the women were nothing more than animals. Thus, during years, the perception of the Western towards the Moslem women was influenced by this presentation. Islam practised in the rest of the world is very different. In my opinion, this does not reflect the reality of women and I think the true identity of the Moslem women remains to be discovered by the West.
4. Baran has refugees as its main characters. Do you think that migration is treated differently in Western and non-Western societies?
Without any doubt there exists differences between the approach made to migration. In the Western countries have a strict quota to accept emigrants and a stricter quota for refugees. The fear of these governments is that these emigrants will put a strain on the economy , therefore they prefer those who fit certain level of education and self-sufficiency. The emigrants who are uneducated and are fleeing poverty are bluntly rejected, as we have seen recently in Australia. In the West, the economic and cultural criteria take precedence over humane considerations.
In Iran, the prospect is completely different. War and famine made the Afghan refugees cross the border to find food and shelter in Iran. They were dispossessed and mostly illiterate. None was rejected. Those with financial means and education emigrated to the Western countries. The official figures of the UNHCR indicates that the number of refugees registered in Iran reached 2 million, the highest density of refugees in the world. If illegal refugees are included, the figure is around 4 million. Despite the economic crisis prevailing in Iran, they were provided with a secure shelter, food, schooling and a chance to survive. Zahra Bahrami,"Baran" came to Iran with her family when she was 3 years old. Her father is an uneducated manual labourer. They lived in the refugee camp of Torbat e Jan where Zahra went to school, got an education similar to Iranian children and is soon ready to join the university. In this perspective, Iran made an exceptional humanistic gesture and is rewarded by these kind of results.
5. Why do you think that Iranian films have become so successful in the outside world?
In my opinion, if one pays attention to the human being and to human values whether they are related to the Iranian culture or another, one ends up being unaware of the borders. There certainly exist differences among peoples in the area of economy or technology, but the human values remain universal, because the human beings were created equal by God. Indeed, the feelings, emotions and aspirations such love, friendship, heroism etc... are present in all human beings. The language of Art can facilitate bringing people together people towards the conscience of a common humanity, despite differences in races, cultures, nationality. I think that the Iranian cinema almost found this language and the world of today, thirsty for love and friendship seems to understand it without difficulties.
6. How would you picture/write/direct something that you would call European?
I never considered making a film outside Iran and I really do not know how I would write it or directed it.
Majid M ajidi , May 2003